It appears, the one and only experience of marginal horror can modified brain biological chemistry. Such pavor makes people more sensitive to the blowouts of adrenaline making destructive effect, saved on stretch десятилетий346.
Scientists have noted that responsiveness to adrenaline blowouts is a pacing factor in posttraumatic stressful disorder (PTSR). At PTSR the person can perceive customary events painfullly. PTSR attacks persisted in catastrophes, veterans of the battles which have suffered from crimes and million of other people all over the world.
Now there is a direct testimony of that PTSR has a biological bottom. A row of probes points that at stress special districts of a brain are modified. Some scientists believe in a capability of development of treatment of biological changes at PTSR. One of such scientists – doctor Dennis of Common people from Jelsky university – marks:
Victim of a destructive injury can biologically be modified for ever, a leah there was it the infinite horror of battle, torture, constant violence in the childhood, unique crash with hurricane or the catastrophe, hardly not concluded loss. All unchecked stresses can have equal biological impact 347.
Common people adds: that in a brain there were changes, people should endure out-of-limit stress. It can be connected to incredible threat of life or to health at which one the person does not check a situation. Less severe stresses, for example because of financial problems or even death of the loved one, do not cause conversions at biology level.
The more strongly the injury, the is is more interquartile originating PTSR. However explorers cannot perceive till now, why at one people who have clashed with catastrophe, there are symptoms PTSR, and at others – are not present. And more one puzzle – why at some such symptoms last 40 years and more, and at some shortly disappear, is spontaneous or after therapy?
According to Common people, evidences of biological changes at stresses are multiplied from the midpoint of 1980th It reduces examples of laboratory trials on the animals subjected to stress. At such experiments scientists research cerebral activity of animals under the influence of electrical discharges.
Changes happen in three fields. At first, blue maculae – the structure regulating production by a brain of catecholamins is affected. These hormones will mobilise us in a dangerous situation. Apparently, at PTSR blue maculae becomes hyperactive and selects too many hormones even if to the person of anything or nearly so threatens nothing.
Secondly, Adrenocorticotrophinum release increases. It is one more hormone influencing an organism in a critical situation. Its amount is regulated by a part of the brain, connecting a pituitary body with a hypothalamus. At PTSR there is an excessive selection of a hormone even if perils actually is not present.
Thirdly, opioidnaja the brain system also becomes hyperactive. It can blunt sense of a pain. Similar change causes «emotional dullness» which one people with PTSR often mention. It is displayed in capability loss to test tender чувства347.
Doctor Matthew Friedman is convinced that «the understanding of the processes happening in a brain after stress, will help to create a drug, capable to convert changes back» 348. As doctor Lennis Etcherling speaks, «to be a victim … it does not mean to endure a terrible situation of all once – a depression can be saved months and even years after catastrophe».
Those who managed to avoid death, have often various injuries, combustions, fractures. Usually it spawns psychologic problems, specially if the person appears disfigured or feels a constant pain.
At the people who have persisted after catastrophe the hysteria, an alert, anger, depression more often are watched, they quite often test sense of guilt. In 1944 in the operation of Lindeman researched the people who have persisted at a fire in Boston where in 1942 the night club «Coconut grove» has burnt down and has perished nearby 490 человек349.
Nevertheless the severe psychologic injury is gained also by those who at all was not on the place of catastrophe. The monogynopaedium and friends of victims too can be referred to victims. The bunch of scientists of Minnesota researched such people and has clarified that to their mental health severe injury, specially is done when emergency has severe aftereffects, for example an air crash:
What relatives have perished in air crashes, appear the extremely vulnerable because of unexpectedness and mercilessness of this event … Is that confirmation that in such situation the death of relatives leads to heavier stress and destructive psychologic aftereffects, rather than death expected. Suddenness of an air crash enlarges hazard of originating of a psychologic injury at members of monogynopaediums and close friends of victims 350.
Experts mark that the first communication about death sounds often too sharply, raspingly and superimposes extremely deep psychologic wounds. Usually on it inform «by phone when the alarmed relatives search for the information on the relatives. Monogynopaediums and friends can be present on the place of accident, expecting news and having heavy stress» 351.
Scientists add: «Condition of catastrophe aggravates often an injury. For example, it can happen during a season of holidays when people anticipate joy recombination. But all appears destroyed during several secs» 351. When shortly before Christmas of 1985 the charter flight of army of the USA was broke down at the Gender on Newfoundland and all 256 persons on board have perished, their monogynopaediums have learnt about it in a major hall where have prepared to mark resetting of relatives. The room has been decorated by bright transparencies, children with pleasure anticipated a feast. The army institute of probes of Uoltera Read has come to a conclusion that such situation «only has boosted shock, disbelief and feel of loss which one does not abandon till now relatives of victims» 352.
Learning of human behaviour affirms that fact that the people working on places of catastrophes, also are subject to a severe psychologic hazard. Maiden reacting (firemen, police, doctors and employees of morgues) interfere with with heavy patterns which one quite often remain with them on all life. Probes demonstrate that shock can be boosted, if, at first, workers identify themselves with victims and realise with them personal connection, and secondly, too longly work, transferring for limits of the psychologic hardiness (that happens often at accidents). For example, after catastrophe in the Gender only three of 256 discovered skew fields have appeared in the relative remainance, and relatives could authenticate them. «It fastens down a detection time of remnants and process of their authenticating, and workers of rescue services are forced to be subjected more longly to stress» 351.
Those who comes to the rescue of persisted and their relatives after catastrophe, also are subjected to a psychologic hazard. For example, after a railway accident of 1977 in Sydney the bunch of explorers has discovered that depression and feel of feebleness originated at workers, whose tasks included rendering of an emotional support grieving семьям353.
In 1983 after the fire in Adelaide during quadragesima explorers have clarified that too tight and frequent dialogue between those who maintains victims of catastrophes, and on suffering affliction causes at maiden sleep violations, fatique and a muscular strain. In particular it touched those who emotionally maintained and advised пострадавших354.
Scientists from Minnesota have reported that probe of those who in 1985 shared in elimination of aftereffects of an air crash of run «Dallas – the Fort-vort», has demonstrated: «At the people working with monogynopaediums of victims, it was watched more symptoms of stress, than at any other bunch» 351.
The doctor B.Raphael, the author of the book «When happens fatality», 355 considers that for those who assists victims, exists three key sources of stress.
1. The close crash with the death, resembling of characteristic vulnerability.
2. Sharing of a pain with victims and their monogynopaediums which one expresses often in emotional identification.
3. Reeled indeterminate form and reeled конфликт355.
There are also others of a victim of catastrophes. Principals of commands of wreckers, public leaders and when it is a question of an air crash, collective of airline and staff аэропорта355 concern to them.
After the severe air crash which have entrained more of 200 lives, one of employees of airline had to transit through a temporary morgue to reach the unique accessible earphone. Terrible patterns of pieces of skew fields so have terrified it that afterwards it needed the help of the psychotherapist.
The ministering cashier remembers till now persons of mother and two small children whom it has at the last moment put aboard the plane, later разбившийся351.
Even the scientists learning catastrophes, are not insured from similar psychologic травм351.
Heavy shocks originate and at an unfair long-time imprisonment (political prisoners, prisoners of war). Such injury can remain with the person on all life.
For example, among the American military men who were taken prisoner during the Korean war, nine of ten persisted suffered affliction PTSR and had other mental problems throughout 35 years after release. This discovery was made by bunch of explorers of New Orleana356357. Their operation has proceeded, when participants of a war in Zalive358 have returned. Scientists have clarified that «the strong and durable stress causes durating violations of psychics almost in everything, irrespective of original psychologic health» 356. Aftereffects of similar trials are the regular memories and sleeps on war, a distance from relatives, marginal suspiciousness, uneasiness and deep depression. Many former prisoners are not capable to behave as standard people. It having appeared on freedom, some of them fall in psychiatric hospitals.
The soldier learn to battle, instead of to be taken prisoner. The prisoner of war does not know how correctly to behave. Scientific probes point that the durable abiding in places of lack of "norm" causes huge stress in the person. What to make – to oppose and perish or co-operate for the sake of a surviving? How to reconcile to life threat, was possiblly a constant? How to get used to lack of the rights, loss of the social role, the close people, native land, dialogue and hope? 356
Psychologists say that for consciousness and spirit collapse it is necessary to separate from the person the companions only. People – social beings, they can withstand a pain, but not loneliness. Therefore solitary imprisonment also causes such pavor in those who is in prison, – recall Arthur Kyostlera’s book «Blinding darkness» (1941) and «One day Ivan Denisovicha» Alexander Solzhenitsyna (1962). On the other hand, the main sense of the novel of Agnes the Newton Kate «to Troy have come back home» (1946) consists that, despite all horrors of abiding in Japanese concentration camps, the person has withstood all because there was not one. For many prisoners of war the road home appears долгой359.